Sister Languages


Article E15


in []

  1. English example --- This ornament is made in India.
    Changed sequence --- This ornament India in made is.
    Hindi ---- yaha aabhushan’ bhaarat me banaayaa hai.
    Gujarati --- aa daaginaa bhaaratmaa banelaa chhe.
    Marathi --- haa daaginaa bhaarataat banavlaa aahe.
    Bengali -- --- ei aabhushan’ bhaarate banaanu haoy.
    Kannada ---- ee aabhushan’ bhaaratadalli maad’ide.

    (This) yaha aa haa ei ee. Verb is at end. India = bhaarat. All Indian languages are not quoted here. They have different scripts and lots of diverse words. But they have similar sequences and are sisters. Note the utility of the Roman script.

  2. National Anthem start -- jana gan'a mana adhinaayak jaya he, bhaarat bhaagya vidhaataa... panjaab sindhu gujaraat maraat'haa, draavid'a utkal vanga. (part)
  3. Try following symbols (part list) -- a (both a-american) aa (a-art) e (egg) i (i- ill ee- eel) o (ok) u (u-pull oo-pool) ae (a-at) ao (aw-law) d (th-they) d' (d-dog) likewise t-t’ n-n' l- l' v (w-win) y (yes) j (jam) j' (s-his) jh (s-measure) z (zero). Some languages need i, ee, u, oo. Some prefer d for (d-dog). Use apo = apostrophe mark ( ‘ ) for few variations. Apo is near letter in html format. Cheap, easy-to-work computers and keyboards have induced thousands to adopt Roman for emails in Indian languages, in arbitrary ways. Example -- (a, aa, A, a’ ) are used for above (aa). Authorities should make easy (language-wise) standards, based on symbols in English- serving machines. 100% uniform script for all, though ideal, looks unpractical. Thus, (vasant) (vasanth) are used by Hindi people, Tamil people respectively.
  4. Indian scripts have lots of symbols (only 26 in Roman) enabling compact words. Roman text needs more space. Linear Roman script suits phonebooks, typing, dictionaries, emails, stock market lists, theatre rows, excel, internet search engines etc. Use the current, popular scripts, if proper devices exist. Otherwise, use optional Roman script (= lipi). Continue English phonebooks and vehicle number-plates for national unity and mobility.
  5. A change of script helps to remove some obsolete faults, not reparable within original script due to widespread long-time usage. Word (Pneumonia) is written equivalent to (nyumoniaa) in the Indian scripts text. Modify (sarakaara), matching with current scripts, to phonetic (sarkaar) in Roman. Respell (Mary, Paper, Carbon) etc as (meri, pepar, kaarban) in Indian languages and prevent misreading as (pa)(per). Use symbols a-z for all text. In case of difficulty, retain the original words, starting with capitals (A-Z) to alert the readers. A text may or may not contain any capitals. For clarity, put 3 dots (...) after sentences in a paragraph. A single dot ( . ) will be enough, to end the last or a single sentence. Provide 2 dots (..) after ( ! ?) between sentences.
  6. Special note for Marathi
    1. Prefer usual Devanagari script. Also practise optional Roman. Use it, if Devanagari is unavailable for any technical or commercial reasons. Roman lipi will help foreigners etc to get quick glimpses of Marathi. Adopt Roman with symbols on English-serving devices. Linear Roman suits typing, data sorting, emails, Internet.
    2. Computers may handle complex scripts. But we humans, who face results, are not computers. Devanagari has (3 tiers, mixing symbols). Symbol (r) takes different forms and positions, in Devanagari, while writing (re, surya, truck, prem). There are other complexities. Devanagari phonebooks failed. Calculators are not made with Devanagari numerals. These are suggestive signals. Keep a standby linear Roman lipi (with global numerals 0123456789). It would help searches in Information Explosion. All Marathi schools teach some English, a-z, A-Z. So Roman option is practical. Media can help a lot by giving examples in both scripts.
    3. People use (Hindi, Mumbai, Joshi) etc though Devanagari equivalents are (Hindee, Mumbaee, Joshee). Adopt (i) for (i, ee), and (u) for (u, oo) for all Marathi work in Roman, to simplify grammar. Few words like (din = Day) (deen = Meek) have different meanings, to be judged from context when common word (din) is used. Context is referred for many other words such as (kar = Hand, Do, Tax). Historic Modi script of Marathi does not have disparity (i, ee) (u, oo).
    4. Typing (dagaD) may work as a program for Devanagari display. Here, Roman display is aimed, so use (dagad' ) = (Stone) in English. Reserve capitals (A-Z) to start names and original English words. Name (Seema) is ok, but use (simaa) = Boundary. Write (t'ebal) or (temporarily, Table) for English word (Table). Word (table) is plural of (tablaa) (< A Drum). Write (silind'ar, imel, t'yub, polis, kriket', kevh, kaolej, rabar, aaiskrim, injekshan, gaes) etc. Temporarily allow (Cylinder, Email, Tube, Police, Cricket, Cave, College, Rubber, Icecream, Injection, Gas) etc starting with capitals. It may not be worthwhile to respell highly technical terms such as (Potassium Permangnate).
    5. Some less-phonetic spellings may be accepted for convenience. Example - (prem = Love) is ok for dictionary and prose, but is read (prema) in some poems. Devanagari equivalent is (prema), ok for dictionary and poem, but is read (prem) in prose. (ghar) is read as (ghara) in poem (he vishvachi maaze ghar).
    6. Devanagari equivalent of ( j ) etc has dual sounds, though not so written. Roman option takes ( j, j' ). Let Roman discard (r'sh'i) and use (rushi). Devanagari and Roman scripts are 2 routes, nearly parallel, but not identical.
    7. Read paras 3 and 5 above. Read (E03) for details in English. Read (para 4 in E05) about a song in Marathi in Roman lipi. English meanings (word to word, and total) are indicated. Such printed information may be circulated while presenting songs and poems to multilingual gatherings. Read Marathi explanation (M12, M21, M22) in Devanagari. E04 is about RLP. Grammar observations in articles E01 (para 4) and E03 (para 11). All these in (

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Updated on : $ February 20, 2009 $
Author : Madhukar N Gogate